The Media’s Role as Watchdogs

A free and independent press is fundamental to a democratic society and allows us to live with liberty.

Protected by the First Amendment, a free press means our government answers to the people. An independent news media uses its watchdog role to investigate and report on government overreach and wrongdoing and hold those in power accountable for their actions.

You can’t have democracy without a free press

Because of press freedom, we get to decide what news, information and entertainment to consume. The government does not have the power to select which media to allow. 

Our exposure to a variety of viewpoints encourages self-expression and debate and helps us make informed decisions about our community and country. 

This core freedom also entertains us, provides a “first draft of history” and spurs some of us toward activism.

At its best, the press connects us and provides information we rely on to participate in public life – protecting all our freedoms.

What is “the press?”

In general, courts have defined “the press” to include all publishers. Broadcast and cable stations, newspapers, magazines and digital publications enjoy freedom of the press. The line can get blurry for independent journalists or freelancers, which today can mean anyone with a smartphone.  

Social media sites are a growing source of news. The companies that own these sites have their own First Amendment rights of free speech. 

Can Government Officials Block You Online?

Can government officials get blocked – or block you?

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iphone with social media icons on home screen

Perspective: Why Arguments for Regulating Social Media Fail the First Amendment Test

These companies have their own First Amendment rights some proposed regulations could violate.

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Perspective: What if the Nation’s Founders Had Been Able to Tweet?

The nation’s founders didn’t have access to today’s social media – but what if they had?

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What does a free press do?

Front Pages gallery

Press freedom in action takes many forms. Around the world, many people believe a free press ensures a thriving democracy. 

People have a need to know. Journalists have a right to tell. News is history in the making and journalists provide the first draft of history. The information gathered by journalists allows people to make decisions and participate in democracy, such as by voting or petitioning the government.

For decades, many Americans have believed that diversity affects the quality of journalism. More diversity in the news and among the people who produce journalism can have a significant impact – whether that diversity reflects race, gender, sexual orientation and identity, life experience or ideology.

Today’s Front Pages

The Freedom Forum’s Today’s Front Pages app allows you to explore the power of press freedom, bringing hundreds of newspaper front pages from around the world to your fingertips each day.

View front pages from key moments in history.


Alberto Ibargüen: A Vision to Reinvent Local News

We explore the impact of the 2022 Free Expression Awards honorees.

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Nicole Hannah Jones_BlogHeader

Nikole Hannah-Jones: Reviving Voices Lost to History and Empowering Communities Today

We explore the impact of the 2022 Free Expression Awards honorees.

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Guest Perspective: Free Press, Diversity and the Digital Age

How one daily digital news outlet, Indian Country Today, is defying the odds and diversifying news.

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Rise Up Exhibit for LGBTQ activism

Perspective: Amid AIDS Crisis, LGBTQ Press Won Key First Amendment Battle

LGBTQ media has had to fight for our First Amendment rights our entire existence.

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What are the rights of and limits on the press?

The press can decide what to publish – and what not to publish

News organizations can’t be forced to publish certain content – or prevented from publishing what they want, in most cases.

They have a First Amendment right to refuse letters to the editor and ads. Because they are privately owned entities whose editors have control over content, they are free to promote whatever political, social or economic view they wish.

News organizations are protected from government censorship. They cannot be ordered to let government agencies or officials review reporting before it is published, a practice called prior review. Except in the most serious national security situations, they cannot be stopped from publishing, or prior restraint.

This protection is key to press freedom because a primary role for the press is to hold government accountable, an impossible job if there’s a possibility or fear of censorship.

Limits on the press

Unless restricted by a valid prior restraint (which is rare), the news media are free to publish any information or opinion they want. This freedom, however, does not always protect them from liability. An outlet that publishes false information about a person, for example, can be sued for libel. A news organization similarly can be sued if it unlawfully invades a person’s privacy – like by trespassing on private property without the owner’s consent or harassing someone by continually following them. Most journalists strive to exercise their freedom to publish in a responsible and ethical manner.

Perspective: Supreme Court shouldn’t make it riskier to scrutinize prominent people

What about student media?

Because of a 1988 Supreme Court decision, public elementary and secondary school officials generally have broad leeway to censor school-sponsored publications.


Reporting and photographing in public places

Journalists gather news by observing, talking to people, taking photos and recording videos. Journalists aren’t guaranteed access that others aren’t, but they can be in public anywhere any of us can, with the same rights and restrictions. 

The courts have generally stood behind journalists who act reasonably in trying to get information — but courts have not protected those who blatantly disregard police orders. Courts have recognized under the First Amendment that journalists can be left alone by the police, so long as they do not unreasonably interfere with or obstruct police activity or risk their own personal safety.

The Supreme Court has said that recording video in public places can be protected speech if the recorder – professional journalist or otherwise – has a message and an audience to receive it.

What courts don’t all agree on is what limits and restrictions are OK, for example, whether there is sometimes or always a right to record police activity, or whether laws or policies can limit the circumstances in which recording can take place.

The Life and Legacy of Photographer Ted Polumbaum

Learn about the life and work of acclaimed freelance photographer Ted Polumbaum, who over his 40-year career captured some of the nation’s most memorable moments.

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Perspective: Assaults on Local Reporters are a Slap in the Face of Our Right to Know

A growing trend should trouble all Americans see the U.S. as an example of freedom to the world.

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Memo to Police: Journalists Have a Duty to Observe, Report – Even Amid Chaos

A “watchdog” press can hardly report to the rest of us if gets arrested while trying to watch.

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Because the news media’s role includes being a watchdog on the government, the press often gets insider information from leakers who share information about the government that isn’t public and whistleblowers who share evidence of government wrongdoing. 

While there are laws to protect whistleblowers, leaking can sometimes be a crime. But journalists can’t be punished for publishing info that was obtained illegally, if the journalist didn’t do anything illegal.

Some states have “shield laws” that protect journalists from being forced to reveal the sources of their reporting and punished if they refuse, but there isn’t a federal equivalent. 

How does press freedom protect information access? 

A core component of press freedom is making sure the public has access to information that it has a right to know

The Freedom of Information Act and its counterparts in the states guarantee us the right to request records from any government agency. The law, known as FOIA, enhances our First Amendment rights and directly benefits society because information obtained under the law could expose government wrongdoing.

When Leaks Dry Up, We Turn To FOIA

The Freedom of Information Act requires the government to hand over its records if someone asks for them.

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Leaks and the Media

When sharing or publishing insider information is OK.

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Perspective: The Roe v. Wade Leak Shows the Benefit of a Free Press

Journalists’ job is to keep us as informed and up to date as possible on matters of public interest.

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Perspective: Free Speech and Press Need Freedom of Information

Anyone can use and benefit from public records laws.

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Where America stands on press freedom

Americans support the watchdog role of the press but are concerned about how they see this being executed. Americans are divided and uncertain about reliable sources of news and about whether the media does a good job. Learn more from our "Where America Stands" survey

How can I be a savvy news consumer?

The First Amendment gives us access to a full range of information and freedom to do with that information as we choose. It protects not only good journalism, but also flawed or half-hearted attempts at news. 

As information consumers, we don’t want to be misled, falling for every fake headline. We don’t want to be so skeptical it’s impossible to trust anyone or recognize facts, either. And now, we are all content creators and gatekeepers, charged with deciding what we should or should not share. 

It’s up to us to analyze and evaluate content we see online or on TV, to make informed decisions about how we wield our freedoms to shape our world.

With the right tools, we can: 

  • Understand ethical journalism.
  • Spot fake news, separating fact from fiction.
  • Identify opinion and bias.
  • Steer clear of propaganda.

Explore the Freedom Forum’s tools and resources to find the information you need and evaluate its worth. Sign up for a free education account to get access to copyright-protected material only available to registered users.

How we’re improving journalism 

The Freedom Forum sponsors programs to support a strong free press and journalists at all levels of their careers. These programs are geared to high school students interested in journalism careers, early career journalists and those already in leadership roles. The goal: By supporting journalists and promoting diversity and opportunity for all in newsrooms, news content will improve.

Power Shift Project Advisory Board 2019 Listening Session

Power Shift Project

The Power Shift Project works to improve newsroom culture and coverage.

Power Shift Project Advisory Board 2019 Listening Session
Class of 2019 (Maria Bryk/Freedom Forum)

Free Spirit Conference

The Al Neuharth Free Spirit conference promotes journalism to high school students

Class of 2019 (Maria Bryk/Freedom Forum)
Chips Quinn Scholars: Class of 2019

Chips Quinn Scholars

Chips Quinn Scholars train and mentor young journalists

Chips Quinn Scholars: Class of 2019